Contributing Factors to Subtractive Bilingualism: A Systematic Review


Fall 12-15-2014



Degree Name


Primary Advisor/Dissertation Chair

Feride Erku

Secondary Advisor/Reader One

Mary P. Diaz

Peer-Reviewer/Reader Two

Christian Miller


The research question addressed in this review is: what are the contributing factors to subtractive bilingualism for K-12 students in the United States? The capstone provides a review of relevant research that outlines the subtractive bilingualism process, history and its context within education, factors that have been found to contribute to the process, effects of subtractive bilingualism and implications for American education professionals. The method of research was based on “Five Steps to Conducting a Systematic Review” (Khan, Kunz, Kleijnen, Antes, 2003). Results of the review found factors to be varied, but largely adhering to three categories of distinction: social aspects and sociolinguistic factors, L2 input and exposure and educational policies, environment and program models. The author’s analysis of the reviewed research discusses implications for American professionals including increased measures for additive instructional approaches.


ESL/ ELLs, Multicultural Education, Teachers/ Teaching, Bilingual Education

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