Summer 8-10-2016



Degree Name


Primary Advisor/Dissertation Chair

Bonnie Swierzbin

Secondary Advisor/Reader One

Anne DeMuth

Peer-Reviewer/Reader Two

Kala Gray


The research question addressed in this project is How are demonstratives used as reference in a 10th grade physical science textbook? The purpose was to inform the instruction of English learners when using a grade level text through a text analysis by understanding how demonstratives are used, whether as a determiner or pronoun, the direction the demonstrative points, the distance to the referent, whether the referent is a noun phrase, clause or inference and the clarity of the referent. Among the findings, it was concluded that demonstrative determiners are used more frequently in text than demonstrative pronouns and tend to have more clarity regarding what they refer to. The majority of demonstratives are anaphoric and the referent is most commonly in the adjacent sentence. Demonstratives may have multiple potential referents in various directions, which can make it difficult to follow the coherence of the text and gives reason to explicitly teach demonstratives.

Research Methodology

Text Analyses


ESL/ ELLs, Literacy

Included in

Education Commons