Reflection On Feedback To Feed-Forward Learning


Spring 5-14-2015



Degree Name


Primary Advisor/Dissertation Chair

Kim Hartung

Secondary Advisor/Reader One

Dr. Todd Beach

Peer-Reviewer/Reader Two

Dr. Jana Hennen-Burr


This dissertation explores the role of feedback, reflection on feedback and feedback to feed-forward. The primary research question is How do my informants describe how reflection informs them about how they learn? The secondary questions provide greater focus: What types of feedback foster reflection about learning? and How do students use feedback to facilitate feed-forward in their learning? Three different types of feedback were used in the study, test corrections with reflection questions, peer partnerships, and one-on-one conversations between the teacher and each student. After experiencing all three types of feedback 31 high school seniors taking an AP Psychology course were asked to describe their experiences by completing a survey. The survey included questions about the effectiveness of each type of feedback, if and how students were using the feedback to reflect on their learning, and if and how they used the feedback to feed-forward their learning. Students were also asked to rank the effectiveness of each type of feedback in helping them learn. Overall, students indicated that they used all three types of feedback to varying degrees to inform how they learn. The test corrections with reflection questions were seen as the most helpful to their learning, and the one-on-one conversations were rated as least effective. The study indicated and verified that feedback is being used by students to feed-forward their learning.


Reflective Practice, Teachers/ Teaching, Feed-Forward

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